• Normal LV systolic function: Ejection fraction > 55%
  • Report may be qualitative – mild/moderate/severe LV impairment

Valvular disease

  • Mild or trace regurgitation requires no action
  • Valve disease is usually a chronic process
  • If valve anatomy is abnormal but functional lesion is mild, still consider referral
  • Echos can underestimate valve severity – if significant symptoms or clear signs, refer

Diastolic dysfunction

  • Questionable significance if patient is well
  • No prognostic treatments
  • Treatments based around treating symptoms using diuretics

Regional wall motion abnormalities

  • Questionable significance
  • May be due to previous cardiac event
  • If patient is well, LV normal size and function then unlikely to be important

Pulmonary artery pressures

  • Normal PAP < 30 mmHg
  • Echos measure PASP (pulmonary artery systolic pressure) – the PAP can be calculated:
    • mean PAP = 0.61 * PASP + 2
  • PASP can only be measured if tricuspid regurgitation
  • Raised PASP usually secondary to: lung disease, left sided heart disease, OSA

Pericardial effusions

  • Up to 1cm likely to be physiological
  • For larger effusions, no urgent action needed if
    • no echo mention of haemodynamic compromise
    • asymptomatic